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AUTHORITY AND THE INDIVIDUAL
world government is to prevent war, and it should
have only such powers as are necessary to this end.
This involves a monopoly of armed force, a power to
sanction and revise treaties, and the right to give
decisions in disputes between States. But the world
government should not interfere with the internal
affairs of member States, except in so far as is neces-
sary to secure the observance of treaties. In like
manner the national government should leave as
much as possible to County Councils, and they in
turn to Borough and Parish Councils. A short-run
loss of efficiency may be expected in some respects,
but if the functions of subordinate bodies are made
sufficiently important able men will find satisfaction
in belonging to them, and the temporary loss of
efficiency will soon be more than made good.
At present local government is too generally re-
garded as the hobby of the well-to-do and the retired,
since as a rule only they have leisure to devote to it.
Because they are unable to participate, few young
and able men and women take much interest in the
affairs of their local community. If this is to be
remedied, local government must become a paid
career, for the same reasons as have led to the pay-
ment of Members of Parliament.
Whether an organization is geographical or cul-
tural or ideological, it will always have two sorts of
relations, those to its own members, and those to
the outside world. The relations of a body to its
own members should, as a rule, be left to the free